Lo nuevo en diagnóstico y tratamiento de diabetes mellitus gestacional

Palabras clave: embarazo, diabetes gestacional, estilo de vida, insulina, glucosa

Resumen

La diabetes mellitus gestacional es una condición en la que se desarrolla intolerancia a los carbohidratos y se diagnostica por primera vez en el embarazo sin una pre-existencia clara de diabetes tipo 1 o tipo 2. Es una patología de gran importancia debido a su creciente prevalencia y asociación a complicaciones maternas, fetales y/o neonatales que afectan a múltiples áreas de la medicina y la comunidad. Pese a que aún hay controversia respecto a su diagnóstico, múltiples estudios recomiendan el método de 2 pasos basado en un tamizaje con 50 gramos de glucosa oral y posteriormente una prueba de tolerancia de glucosa de 3 horas con una ingesta de 100 gramos de glucosa en aquellas que presenten un tamizaje positivo. El pilar del tratamiento va a consistir en la dieta y estilos de vida saludable. Para aquellas pacientes que requieran tratamiento farmacológico, el principal ente va a seguir siendo la insulina, pudiendo utilizar asimismo la metformina como una alternativa viable. Aún queda mucho por explorar y determinar en esta patología compleja, para lograr alcanzar un consenso entre las distintas guías y conseguir las mejores recomendaciones para la población a escala mundial.

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Biografía del autor/a

Andrea Lucía Espinoza Artavia, Dra, Investigadora independiente, San José, Costa Rica

Médico general, graduada de la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), investigadora independiente, San José, Costa Rica. Código médico: 15174. Correo: a.espinozaartavia@gmail.com

Roxana Eugenia Fernandez Vaglio, Dra, Investigadora independiente, San José, Costa Rica

Médico general, graduada de la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR),  investigadora independiente, San José, Costa Rica. Código médico: 15160. Correo: rox.fernandez.vaglio@hotmail.com

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Publicado
2019-04-01
Cómo citar
1.
Espinoza Artavia AL, Fernandez Vaglio RE. Lo nuevo en diagnóstico y tratamiento de diabetes mellitus gestacional. Rev.méd.sinerg. [Internet]. 1 de abril de 2019 [citado 18 de junio de 2019];4(4):41 -54. Disponible en: https://revistamedicasinergia.com/index.php/rms/article/view/180
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